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As a result of many years of difficult confrontation between the ruling class and the working people, large political parties and unions emerged in the country, the most important social reforms were phased in: electoral law, labor and criminal laws were regulated. Eight-hour workdays were established to replace disempowering work from dawn to dawn, unemployment benefits, childcare and illness benefits were paid, strict state sanitary standards etc. were introduced. At this is important now.

Throughout the entire period under review, a struggle was underway in the country to eliminate mass illiteracy, unemployment, corruption and organized crime. The reforms carried out over the years in the field of education and culture have contributed to an unprecedented increase in pop, literary, musical, artistic creativity, the emergence of new artistic movements, as well as the establishment and development of modern theater and cinema in Italy.

The Second Half

In the second half of the XIX century, “bourgeois” and “folk” theaters developed and became popular, and in the first quarter of the 20th-century variety shows and the dialect theaters of Naples, Palermo, Bari, Genoa, Bologna. By the end of the XIX century, the Italian theater had the richest experience of multi-genre productions, that later found its application in cinema.

The turn of the century

A bourgeois audience appeared in the theater with a thirst for novelty, entertainment, and active nationalist rhetoric. It was at this time that the theater embarked on the path of large-scale reform and the search for new expressive means: professional troupes appeared with the separation of actors into tragedians and comedians, and the profession of director arose. Dramaturgy, aesthetics, and the organization of productions have fundamentally changed. The directors, actors and playwrights conducted a relentless search for the image of a new hero and citizen, a different truth of life. For this reason, the focus was on the works of verists with their impassive, objective narration and the principle of the impersonality of the author.

The works of L. Pirandello, G. D’Annunzio, R. Bracco, S. Benelli, W. Betty, R. Viviani, and Verists, in many respects, contributed not only to the reform of the theater but also to the formation of national cinema. By the beginning of the 20th century, the Italian theater gradually began to free itself from the usual declarative mannerism, conventionality, stencil of the game, acting scream and rumble on the stage. In the acting game, arbitrariness, spontaneity, naturalness began to be welcomed.

Of the most important features of leading actors at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries

The following should be highlighted: high erudition and active citizenship. a lot of analytical work in the process of creating complex images, desire for scenic truth, appeal to foreign drama, transfer of accumulated knowledge to young actors and exchange of experience with colleagues, theoretical study of the development of modern theater recognition of cinema as art after 1909.

By the beginning of World War I, the process of reforming the theater remained incomplete for the following reasons: the lack of theater schools, low professional level of most actors, inaccessibility of the theater for the common people, a sluggish search for a new theater language and expressive means, an acute shortage of interesting contemporary drama works, poor organization of theatrical activities. disenfranchised position of a simple actor. At the same time, in 1909-1914, active rapprochement of theater and cinema began.